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J Chem Phys. 2005 Nov 15;123(19):194103.

Nonlinear response theory with relaxation: the first-order hyperpolarizability.

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Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden.


Based on the Ehrenfest theorem, an equation of motion that takes relaxation into account has been presented in wave-function theory, and the resulting response functions are nondivergent in the off-resonant as well as the resonant regions of optical frequencies. The derivation includes single- and multideterminant reference states. When applied to electric dipole properties, the response functions correspond to the phenomenological sum-over-states expressions of Orr and Ward [Mol. Phys. 20, 513 (1971)] for polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of an isolated system. A universal dispersion formula is derived for the complex second-order response function. Response theory calculations are performed on lithium hydride and para-nitroaniline for off-resonant and resonant frequencies in the electro-optical Kerr effect and second-harmonic generation.

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