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Int Rev Immunol. 2005 Sep-Dec;24(5-6):393-413.

Antigen-specific therapies in multiple sclerosis.

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Unitat de Neuroimmunologia ClĂ­nica, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.


During recent years, many new therapies for human autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) have been considered based on promising in vitro data or animal experiments. A number of them have proceeded to early clinical testing. However, very few finally advanced to approval by the regulatory agencies and are currently available to patients. The main reasons for failure were either lack of efficacy in humans and/or unexpected and untolerable adverse events. Although previous attempts toward antigen-specific immunomodulation have often been disappointing, these difficulties have led to renewed interest in therapies that aim at reestablishing tolerance to autoantigens at the level of either T cell-mediated or antibody-mediated immune responses or both. Such antigen-specific immunotherapies offer the prospect of correcting pathological immune reactivity against autoantigens in a highly specific and effective manner and also achievement of this goal with relatively little side effects. Here we will review the various approaches that are currently being considered for antigen-specific immunotherapies in MS.

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