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Int Rev Immunol. 2005 Sep-Dec;24(5-6):327-39.

Innovative immune-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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Diabetes Research Center, Department of Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease caused by a culmination of noxious processes of autoimmunity composed of various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Current treatment of type 1 diabetes focuses on restraining the endocrine disease without affecting the autoimmune process that underlies it. Prevention of this disease requires immune modulation and early intervention. New therapeutic approaches can be classified on the basis of the immunological arm targeted, that is, T-cell immune modulation (using cytokines, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies, and peptide MHC class II dimers), innate immune system modulation (using alpha-galactosylceramide or peptide 277), or specific antigen vaccination (glutamic acid decarboxylase and insulin). Here we review the most promising therapies developed based on these targets and emphasize those that have reached human phase clinical investigation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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