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Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Dec;32(12):778-84.

Trends in pelvic inflammatory disease hospital discharges and ambulatory visits, United States, 1985-2001.

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Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.



The objective of this study was to describe the estimated trends in incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among reproductive-aged women in hospital and ambulatory settings.


Analyses of PID estimates were performed. Three nationally representative surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS): National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), were used to obtain the estimates of PID (defined by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes). National Disease and Therapeutic Index (NDTI) estimates were reviewed for comparison.


Rates of hospitalized PID declined 68% overall from 1985 through 2001 (P <0.0001). Ambulatory data support a decrease in PID from 1985 to 2001. From 1995 to 2001, approximately 769,859 cases of acute and unspecified PID were diagnosed annually, 91% in ambulatory settings.


PID has decreased in hospital and ambulatory settings. The expanded national surveys in outpatient and emergency departments provide more complete estimates for PID. Optimal management of PID should target ambulatory settings, where the majority of cases are diagnosed and treated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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