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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 6;102(49):17582-7. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Global gene expression profiles reveal significant nuclear reprogramming by the blastocyst stage after cloning.

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Center for Regenerative Biology/Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.


Nuclear transfer (NT) has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but the technology is hindered by low efficiency. Global gene expression analysis of clones is important for the comprehensive study of nuclear reprogramming. Here, we compared global gene expression profiles of individual bovine NT blastocysts with their somatic donor cells and fertilized control embryos using cDNA microarray technology. The NT embryos' gene expression profiles were drastically different from those of their donor cells and closely resembled those of the naturally fertilized embryos. Our findings demonstrate that the NT embryos have undergone significant nuclear reprogramming by the blastocyst stage; however, problems may occur during redifferentiation for tissue genesis and organogenesis, and small reprogramming errors may be magnified downstream in development.

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