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Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;25(3):377-85. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Water, mineral waters and health.

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Department of Clinic and Applied Medical Therapy, UOC of Medical Therapy and Thermal Medicine, Policlinico Umberto I, University of Rome "La Sapienza", V.le del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy.


The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

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