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J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005 Nov;14(9):808-19.

Menstrual and reproductive factors and fracture risk: the Leisure World Cohort Study.

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1
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. annliahi@usc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Because menopausal estrogen is related to the development of osteoporosis, we investigated the potential associations of the estrogen-related events of menarche, pregnancy, and menopause with fracture risk in a population-based, prospective study of older women.

METHODS:

The Leisure World Cohort was established in the early 1980s when residents of a California retirement community, including 8877 women, completed a health survey. Incident fractures of the hip (n = 1220), wrist (n = 463), and spine (n = 613) incurred over two decades were identified from four follow-up questionnaires, hospital discharge records, and (for hip fracture) death certificates. Hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for age and other potential confounders were calculated using proportional hazards regression.

RESULTS:

Late age at menarche was associated with decreased hip fracture risk (HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.98, for age > or = 14 vs. < or = 12 years) but was unrelated to fractures at other sites. Hip fracture risk was also reduced in women who had been pregnant (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72- 0.95). Women who reported menopause at age 45+ had a lower risk of wrist fracture compared with those with menopause at age < or = 44 (HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95 for ages 45-54; HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.49-1.04 for ages 55+). Although fracture risks did not differ between ever and never users of menopausal estrogen, recency since last use was related to wrist fractures (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16 for each 5 years since last years).

CONCLUSIONS:

The estrogen-related events of menarche, pregnancy, and menopause were not associated with osteoporotic fracture risk in a consistent manner. Other factors related to these events may be influencing development of osteoporosis and the likelihood of sustaining a fracture in older women.

PMID:
16313208
DOI:
10.1089/jwh.2005.14.808
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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