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Trends Immunol. 2006 Jan;27(1):49-55. Epub 2005 Nov 23.

Triggering TLR signaling in vaccination.

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Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, PO Box 208022, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that are an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. Many established, as well as experimental, vaccines incorporate ligands for TLRs, not only to protect against infectious diseases but also in therapeutic immunization against noninfectious diseases, such as cancer. We review the underlying mechanisms by which engagement of TLR signaling pathways might trigger an adaptive immune response after immunization. Although the engagement of TLR signaling pathways is a promising mechanism for boosting vaccine responses, questions of efficacy, feasibility and safety remain the subject of active investigation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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