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Leukemia. 2006 Feb;20(2):322-8.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in AML and MDS using myeloablative versus reduced-intensity conditioning: the role of dose intensity.

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The Division of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.


Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) with both myeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is an effective therapy in AML/MDS. However, the relative merits of each may differ in different settings. To define the role of dose intensity, we analyzed SCT outcomes of 112 consecutive patients with AML/MDS. A total of 45 patients met eligibility criteria for standard myeloablative conditioning and were given intravenous-busulfan (12.8 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (ivBuCy). A total of 67 noneligible patients were given RIC with fludarabine and intravenous-busulfan (6.4 mg/kg, FB2, n=41) or a modified myeloablative regimen with fludarabine and myeloablative doses of intravenous-busulfan (12.8 mg/kg, FB4, n=26). The overall survival (OS) at 2 years was 50, 49 and 47% after ivBuCy, FB4 and FB2, respectively (P=NS). Nonrelapse mortality was higher after ivBuCy, 22 vs 8% (P=0.05), but relapse rates were lower. Active disease at SCT was the most significant predictor of reduced survival in multivariable analysis (HR 4.5, P=0.0001). Myeloablative and RIC regimens had similar outcomes when leukemia was in remission at SCT; however, patients with active disease could only be salvaged by myeloablative conditioning. Among the latter, OS was 45% after ivBuCy but no FB2 recipient survived (P=0.02). Patients with active disease, ineligible for standard myeloablation, could tolerate modified myeloablation well; however, long-term outcome cannot be determined yet.

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