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J Cell Sci. 2005 Dec 1;118(Pt 23):5615-23.

Carboxyamidotriazole-induced inhibition of mitochondrial calcium import blocks capacitative calcium entry and cell proliferation in HEK-293 cells.

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Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.


Blocking calcium entry may prevent normal and pathological cell proliferation. There is evidence suggesting that molecules such as carboxyamidotriazole, widely used in anti-cancer therapy based on its ability to block calcium entry in nonexcitable cells, also have antiproliferative properties. We found that carboxyamidotriazole and the capacitative calcium entry blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate inhibited proliferation in HEK-293 cells with IC50 values of 1.6 and 50 microM, respectively. Capacitative calcium entry is activated as a result of intracellular calcium store depletion. However, non-capacitative calcium entry pathways exist that are independent of store depletion and are activated by arachidonic acid and diacylglycerol, generated subsequent to G protein coupled receptor stimulation. We found that carboxyamidotriazole completely inhibited the capacitative calcium entry and had no effect on the amplitude of arachidonic-acid-activated non-capacitative calcium entry. However, investigation of the effects of carboxyamidotriazole on mitochondrial calcium dynamics induced by carbachol, capacitative calcium entry and exogenously set calcium loads in intact and digitonin-permeabilized cells revealed that carboxyamidotriazole inhibited both calcium entry and mitochondrial calcium uptake in a time-dependent manner. Mitochondrial inner-membrane potential was altered by carboxyamidotriazole treatment, suggesting that carboxyamidotriazole antagonizes mitochondrial calcium import and thus local calcium clearance, which is crucial for the maintenance of capacitative calcium entry.

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