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J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Nov 30;127(47):16652-9.

Boronate-based fluorescent probes for imaging cellular hydrogen peroxide.

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Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.


The syntheses, properties, and biological applications of the Peroxysensor family, a new class of fluorescent probes for hydrogen peroxide, are presented. These reagents utilize a boronate deprotection mechanism to provide high selectivity and optical dynamic range for detecting H2O2 in aqueous solution over similar reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide, nitric oxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, hypochlorite, singlet oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl radical. Peroxyresorufin-1 (PR1), Peroxyfluor-1 (PF1), and Peroxyxanthone-1 (PX1) are first-generation probes that respond to H2O2 by an increase in red, green, and blue fluorescence, respectively. The boronate dyes are cell-permeable and can detect micromolar changes in H2O2 concentrations in living cells, including hippocampal neurons, using confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy. The unique combination of ROS selectivity, membrane permeability, and a range of available excitation/emission colors establishes the potential value of PR1, PF1, PX1, and related probes for interrogating the physiology and pathology of cellular H2O2.

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