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Exp Cell Res. 2006 Jan 15;312(2):184-97. Epub 2005 Nov 17.

S100A8 and S100A9 activate MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling pathways and trigger translocation of RAGE in human prostate cancer cells.

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Research Group Hormones and Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Centre, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.


S100 proteins, a multigenic family of calcium-binding proteins, have been linked to human pathologies in recent years. Deregulated expression of S100 proteins, including S100A8 and S100A9, was reported in association with neoplastic disorders. In a previous study, we identified enhanced expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human prostate cancer. To investigate potential functional implications of S100A8 and S100A9 in prostate cancer, we examined the influence of over-expressed and of purified recombinant S100A8 and S100A9 proteins in different prostate epithelial cell lines. S100A8 and S100A9 were secreted by prostate cancer cells, a finding which prompted us to analyze a possible function as extracellular ligands. S100A8/A9 induced the activation of NF-kappaB and an increased phosphorylation of p38 and p44/42 MAP kinases. In addition, extracellular S100A8/A9 stimulated migration of benign prostatic cells in vitro. Furthermore, in immunofluorescence experiments, we found a strong speckled co-localization of intracellular S100A8/A9 with RAGE after stimulating cells with recombinant S100A8/A9 protein or by increasing cytosolic Ca2+ levels. In summary, our findings show that S100A8 and S100A9 are linked to the activation of important features of prostate cancer cells.

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