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Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2004 Nov;1(1):67-86.

Dry powder inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery.

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Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands.


The pulmonary route is an interesting route for drug administration, both for effective local therapy (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis) and for the systemic administration of drugs (e.g., peptides and proteins). Well-designed dry powder inhalers are highly efficient systems for pulmonary drug delivery. However, they are also complicated systems, the the performance of which relies on many aspects, including the design of the inhaler (e.g., resistance to air flow and the used de-agglomeration principle to generate the inhalation aerosol), the powder formulation and the air flow generated by the patient. The technical background of these aspects, and how they may be tuned in order to obtain desired performance profiles, is reviewed. In light of the technical background, new developments and possibilities for further improvements are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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