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J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 27;281(4):2347-57. Epub 2005 Nov 17.

DNA damage promotes histone deacetylase 4 nuclear localization and repression of G2/M promoters, via p53 C-terminal lysines.

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Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Università di Modena e Reggio, Via Campi 213/d, 41100 Modena, Italy.


Repression of G(2)/M promoters after DNA damage is an active mechanism that requires the p53 tumor suppressor. We have recently found that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is recruited on NF-Y-dependent repressed promoters. In this report, we describe the relationship between p53 and HDAC4 recruitment following DNA damage using immunofluorescence, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transfection experiments. HDAC4 shuttles from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, following DNA damage, independently of the activation of p53 and becomes associated with promoters through a p53-dependent mechanism. The C-terminal lysines of p53, which are acetylated and methylated, are required for HDAC4 recruitment and transcriptional repression. Trichostatin treatment, but not HDAC4 functional inactivation, relieves the adriamycin-mediated repression of G(2)/M promoters. Our results indicate that HDAC4 is a component of the DNA damage response and that post-translational modifications of p53 are important for repression of G(2)/M genes.

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