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Toxicology. 2006 Feb 1;218(2-3):90-9. Epub 2005 Nov 14.

Effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the toxicity of the arylhydroxylamine metabolites of sulphamethoxazole and dapsone in normal human keratinocytes.

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1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Abstract

Sulphonamides, such as sulphamethoxazole (SMX) and the related sulphone dapsone (DDS), show a higher incidence of cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) compared with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative patients. During HIV infection, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are increased. We hypothesized that this increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines may increase the toxicity of the arylhydroxylamine metabolites of SMX (S-NOH) and DDS (D-NOH) in keratinocytes through a reduction in glutathione (GSH) content. We evaluated the effect of TNF-alpha on GSH levels in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and found a significant decrease in GSH after 24h. Pre-treatment with TNF-alpha also resulted in an increase in the recovery of D-NOH, but failed to alter drug-protein covalent adduct formation in NHEK. We also evaluated the effect of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and conditioned media (obtained from monocytes stimulated with LPS) on the cytotoxicity of pre-formed arylhydroxylamine metabolites in NHEK. Priming cells with cytokines did not significantly alter the cytotoxicity of the metabolites. The effect of pre-treatment with TNF-alpha on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in NHEK was also determined. While ROS formation in NHEK was increased in the presence of D-NOH, TNF-alpha did not alter the level of ROS generation. Our data suggest that the level of GSH reduction induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines does not predispose NHEK to cellular toxicity from either S-NOH or D-NOH.

PMID:
16289751
DOI:
10.1016/j.tox.2005.10.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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