Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicology. 2006 Feb 1;218(2-3):90-9. Epub 2005 Nov 14.

Effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the toxicity of the arylhydroxylamine metabolites of sulphamethoxazole and dapsone in normal human keratinocytes.

Author information

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.


Sulphonamides, such as sulphamethoxazole (SMX) and the related sulphone dapsone (DDS), show a higher incidence of cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) compared with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative patients. During HIV infection, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are increased. We hypothesized that this increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines may increase the toxicity of the arylhydroxylamine metabolites of SMX (S-NOH) and DDS (D-NOH) in keratinocytes through a reduction in glutathione (GSH) content. We evaluated the effect of TNF-alpha on GSH levels in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and found a significant decrease in GSH after 24h. Pre-treatment with TNF-alpha also resulted in an increase in the recovery of D-NOH, but failed to alter drug-protein covalent adduct formation in NHEK. We also evaluated the effect of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and conditioned media (obtained from monocytes stimulated with LPS) on the cytotoxicity of pre-formed arylhydroxylamine metabolites in NHEK. Priming cells with cytokines did not significantly alter the cytotoxicity of the metabolites. The effect of pre-treatment with TNF-alpha on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in NHEK was also determined. While ROS formation in NHEK was increased in the presence of D-NOH, TNF-alpha did not alter the level of ROS generation. Our data suggest that the level of GSH reduction induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines does not predispose NHEK to cellular toxicity from either S-NOH or D-NOH.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center