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J Colloid Interface Sci. 2006 Mar 15;295(2):374-87. Epub 2005 Nov 9.

Viscosity and yield stress reduction in non-colloidal concentrated suspensions by surface modification with polymers and surfactants and/or nanoparticle addition.

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Department of Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA.


A custom-designed apparatus termed the yield stress adaptor (YSA) has been used to evaluate the effect of polymer-surfactant coatings, and the addition of nanoparticles of different size, shape and surface chemistry, on the rheological properties of large hydrophilic particulates, sand, with the aim of reducing interparticle friction forces. Experimental results show that the flow properties of sand slurries at high volume fractions of sand (>50%) can be significantly enhanced by adding nanoparticles, and by surface modification with polymer/surfactant mixtures. A lesser effect is observed for polymer-only and surfactant-only coated samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of organic species at the surface. The effect of polymer/surfactant concentration, adsorption time, polymer molecular weight, as well as surfactant charge and chemical structure were also addressed.

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