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Cancer Res. 2005 Nov 15;65(22):10578-84.

Diminished expression of transcription factors nuclear factor kappaB and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein underlies a novel tumor evasion mechanism affecting macrophages of mammary tumor-bearing mice.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine and the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.


Interactions between malignant tumors and the host immune system shape the course of cancer progression. The molecular basis of such interactions is the subject of immense interest. Proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages are critical mediators of immune responses that contribute to the control of the advancement of neoplasia. We have shown that the expressions of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are decreased in macrophages from mammary tumor-bearing mice. In this study, we investigated the causes of IL-12 dysregulation and found deficient nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) expression and function in tumor bearers' peritoneal macrophages. The constitutive expressions of NFkappaB p50, c-rel, p65, and C/EBPalpha and beta, as well as the lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NFkappaB components and C/EBPalpha and beta, are profoundly impaired in macrophages from mice bearing D1-DMBA-3 tumors. Because similar findings occur with the iNOS gene, it seems that it represents a novel mechanism by which tumor-derived factors interfere with the host immune defenses.

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