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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005 Oct;73(5):953-64.

Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: outcome at academic and community clinics.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


Female assault survivors (N=171) with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to prolonged exposure (PE) alone, PE plus cognitive restructuring (PE/CR), or wait-list (WL). Treatment, which consisted of 9-12 sessions, was conducted at an academic treatment center or at a community clinic for rape survivors. Evaluations were conducted before and after therapy and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Both treatments reduced PTSD and depression in intent-to-treat and completer samples compared with the WL condition; social functioning improved in the completer sample. The addition of CR did not enhance treatment outcome. No site differences were found: Treatment in the hands of counselors with minimal cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) experience was as efficacious as that of CBT experts. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up, although a minority of patients received additional treatment.

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