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Urology. 2005 Nov;66(5):1005-9.

Videourodynamic characteristics and lower urinary tract symptoms of female bladder outlet obstruction.

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Department of Urology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan.



To analyze the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and videourodynamic characteristics of female bladder outlet obstruction (BOO).


Videourodynamic studies were performed in 207 women with signs and symptoms of BOO. Bladder outlet obstruction was defined as the radiologic evidence of bladder outlet narrowing plus a voiding pressure greater than 35 cm H2O and a maximum flow rate less than 15 mL/s or a voiding pressure greater than 40 cm H2O. Women with BOO were categorized into five groups on the basis of the videourodynamic findings. The LUTS and urodynamic parameters were analyzed according to these classifications.


Videourodynamic study revealed bladder neck obstruction in 18 patients (8.7%), urethral sphincter obstruction in 56 (27.1%), pelvic floor muscle obstruction in 106 (51.2%), high-grade pelvic organ prolapse and BOO in 13 (6.3%), and urethral stricture in 14 (6.8%). Urgency frequency was reported by 94% and difficult urination by 57% of the total patients. Among the 17 patients with urinary retention, obstruction was noted at the urethral sphincter in 10, pelvic floor muscle in 5, bladder neck in 1, and urethral stricture in 1. Detrusor overactivity was found in 52.7% of total patients and was most frequent in those with urethral sphincter obstruction (78.6%). Patients with bladder neck obstruction had the highest voiding pressure and lowest maximum flow rate.


Differences in videourodynamic characteristics of women with BOO might be associated with the underlying pathophysiology of the bladder, urethral, and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction.

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