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J Clin Virol. 2005 Dec;34(4):268-71.

Comparative performance evaluation of the HIV-1 LiPA protease and reverse transcriptase resistance assay on clinical isolates.

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Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT, USA.



Assays that provide information regarding HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs are widely used to help manage antiretroviral treatment. The most commonly used HIV genotypic resistance assays are based on DNA sequencing (TRUGENE, ViroSeq, and home-brew) or reverse hybridization (LiPA).


This study compares the results from clinical specimens using two assay methods: the LiPA HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) resistance assay and DNA sequencing.


Operators at each of three sites tested 10-20 randomly selected clinical specimens using LiPA (three strips total with probes for PR codons 30, 46, 48, 50, 54, 82, 84, and 90, and RT codons 41, 69, 70, 74, 75, 103, 106, 151, 181, 184, and 215) and DNA sequencing (TRUGENE) HIV-1 Genotyping Assay or home-brew methodology). Results from the two methods were categorized for each codon as follows: (i) concordant (LiPA and sequencing having the same result for wild-type (WT), mutant, and mixture); (ii) partially concordant (mixture by one method and not by the other); (iii) indeterminate (no result by LiPA); and (iv) discordant (LiPA and sequencing detecting different amino acids).


A total of 50 clinical specimens were tested using the LiPA PR strip; 40 of these were also tested using the LiPA RT strip. For PR, 91.3% of the codon results were concordant, 3.0% were partially concordant, 4.5% were indeterminate by LiPA, and 1.3% were discordant. For RT, 88.0% of the codon results were concordant, 5.9% were partially concordant, 5.2% were indeterminate, and 0.9% were discordant. LiPA detected 3.0% (PR) and 6.4% (RT) WT/mutant mixtures, compared to 0.5% (PR) and 3.2% (RT) mixtures by sequencing.


More WT/mutant mixtures were detected using LiPA, possibly indicating increased sensitivity. Relatively high concordance and low discordance rates were observed between LiPA and DNA sequencing. The indeterminate rate for LiPA was moderately high and may limit the clinical utility of this assay.

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