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Anal Chem. 2005 Nov 15;77(22):7319-25.

Time-weighted average water sampling with a solid-phase microextraction device.

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Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.


A fiber-in-needle SPME device was developed and investigated for time-weighted average water sampling. The device was designed so that the overall mass-transfer resistance is contained within the static water inside the needle, which ensures that mass uptake could be predicted with Fick's first law of diffusion and the sampling rate is less affected by water turbulence. The device possesses all of the advantages of commercialized devices, in addition to needle filling and replacement ease. Laboratory calibration with deployment of the device to a flow-through system demonstrated that there was a linear mass uptake for up to 12 days, and the linear range could be longer. PDMS coating is assumed to be a perfect zero sink for most polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, except naphthalene. The effect of water temperature was also investigated. Under normal field conditions, the change of mass uptake rate with temperature was negligible. To facilitate the convenience for long-term water sampling, a new standard aqueous generator was introduced. This study extended the application of SPME technology for long-term water sampling.

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