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Theriogenology. 2006 Jan 7;65(1):45-64. Epub 2005 Nov 8.

Manipulation and control of the estrous cycle in pasture-based dairy cows.

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Probreed RMS Pty Ltd., 509 Penshurst-Port Fairy Road, Kirkstall 3283, Australia.


Treatments designed to synchronize luteolysis, preovulatory follicular development, and ovulation, and resynchronize estrus after a first AI have improved responses to synchronization treatments. Protocols based only on the use of PGF result in variable onset of estrus. Concentrations of progesterone prior to administering PGF have affected submission rates and fertility while administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) after inducing luteolysis has improved the synchrony of estrus and ovulation in some studies. In pasture-based dairy cows, GnRH-based protocols have generally resulted in one-third of both anestrous and cycling cows conceiving following synchronization of ovulation and timed AI. Protocols which use intravaginal progesterone releasing inserts (IVP4) are effective in inducing estrus in over 90% of treated dairy cows. Resynchronization of estrus after reinsertion of an IVP4 also improves the synchrony of returns to estrus, but pregnancy rates to the first AI have been reduced in some studies, and submission rates at a resynchronized estrus are less than at the first synchronized estrus. Administration of EB can be used to synchronize follicle wave emergence in resynchronized cows with intervals to new wave emergence comparable to that in cows synchronized for a first AI, but plasma concentrations of progesterone following treatment may be reduced. Synchronization of estrus and ovulation can be enhanced by administration of EB or GnRH during proestrus, but dose, timing and stage of follicular development at the time of treatment can affect outcomes.

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