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Semin Diagn Pathol. 2004 Nov;21(4):247-54.

Paraduodenal pancreatitis: a clinico-pathologically distinct entity unifying "cystic dystrophy of heterotopic pancreas", "para-duodenal wall cyst", and "groove pancreatitis".

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Karmanos Cancer Institute/Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.


A distinct form of chronic pancreatitis occurring predominantly in and around the duodenal wall (near the minor papilla) has been reported under various names, including cystic dystrophy of heterotopic pancreas, pancreatic hamartoma of duodenum, para-duodenal wall cyst, myoadenomatosis, and groove pancreatitis. Our experience with these lesions and the review of the literature show that these lesions have the following common characteristics: (1) The duodenal wall contains dilated ducts, some with inspissated secretions, and pseudocystic changes as well as adjacent stromal reactions including hypercellular granulation tissue, foreign-body type giant cell reaction engulfing mucoprotein material, and myofibroblastic proliferation. (2) Brunner's gland hyperplasia is typically present. (3) Dense myoid stromal proliferation, with intervening rounded lobules of pancreatic acinar tissue, creates a histologic picture reminiscent of "myoadenomatosis," "pancreatic hamartoma," or even leiomyoma in some cases. (4) Spillover of fibrosis into the adjacent pancreas and soft tissue occurs, especially in the "groove" area (between the pancreas, common bile duct and duodenum), including the region around the common bile duct. (5) Clinically, these lesions often mimic "pancreas cancer" or periampullary tumors, because of marked scarring as well as the ill-defined borders of the process. Patients with these findings are predominantly males, 40-50 years old, with a history of alcohol abuse. That the process is often centered in the region of minor papilla (and the adjacent pancreas) suggests that an anatomic variation of the ductal system may render this area particularly susceptible to the effects of alcoholic injury, and the myo-adenomatoid and cystic changes on the duodenal wall may in turn represent changes related to a localized recurrent pancreatitis. In conclusion, these clinicopathologic findings characterize a distinctive process that can be referred to as paraduodenal pancreatitis.

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