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Thromb Haemost. 2005 Sep;94(3):639-45.

Ethanol inhibits pulse pressure-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration by differentially modulating plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9.

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Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NewYork 14642-8410, USA.


We investigated the effect of ethanol on the pulse pressure-induced expression of PAI-1 and MMP-2/9 in human smooth muscle cells (SMC). Human SMC were exposed to static or pulse pressure (25 mL/min; pulse pressure 106/50 mm Hg) conditions for 24 h in the absence or presence of ethanol (0.1-100 mM). SMC migration was then measured by Transwell migration assay. SMC exposed to pulse pressure demonstrated a significant increase in PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression (approximately 4-fold and approximately 3-fold) concomitant with a 3- and 8-fold increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein, respectively. Ethanol dose-dependently inhibited the pulse pressure-induced SMC migration with complete inhibition observed at 20 mM. There was no effect of ethanol on basal PAI-1 or MMP-2/9 in SMC under static conditions. However, ethanol significantly enhanced the pulse pressure-induced PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression (2.2 +/- 0.52 fold and 2.5 +/- 0.27 fold, for 10 mM), respectively. In contrast, ethanol dose-dependently inhibited the pulse pressure-induced increases in MMP-9 protein and pro-MMP-9 activity and to a lesser extent MMP-2 mRNA and protein and pro-MMP-2 activity, with significant inhibition observed at 1 mM. These data provide a molecular mechanism mediating the inhibitory effect of ethanol on pulse-pressure-induced SMC migration and may be relevant to the cardioprotective effects of ethanol in vivo.

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