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Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Dec 1;41(11):1638-47. Epub 2005 Oct 28.

The clinical pharmacokinetics of rifampin and ethambutol in HIV-infected persons with tuberculosis.

Author information

1
Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY 10003, USA. dperlman@bethisraelny.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The pharmacokinetics of rifampin and ethambutol in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) are incompletely characterized. We examined the pharmacokinetics of rifampin and ethambutol in a cohort of patients with HIV-related TB who were treated in the United States.

METHODS:

Serum drug concentrations were determined 2, 6, and 10 h after dosing in 36 HIV-infected patients with TB who were taking rifampin and in 49 who were taking ethambutol. Observed serum concentrations were compared with published normal ranges and published data.

RESULTS:

With daily dosing of rifampin (600 mg), 26 (77%) of 34 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 59%-89%]) had a low maximum concentration of rifampin (<8 microg/mL), and 12 (35%; 95% CI, 20%-54%) had a very low maximum concentration (<4 microg/mL). With intermittent rifampin dosing (600 mg), 13 (68%) of 19 patients (95% CI, 44%-85%) had a low maximum concentration of rifampin, and 5 (26%; 95% CI, 11%-50%) had a very low maximum concentration. With daily ethambutol dosing (20 mg/kg), 33 (69%) of 48 patients (95% CI, 55%-81%) had a low maximum concentration of ethambutol (<2 microg/mL), and 18 (38%; 95% CI, 24%-53%) had a very low maximum concentration (<1 microg/mL). With intermittent ethambutol dosing (50 mg/kg twice weekly or 30 mg/kg thrice weekly), 13 (72%) of 18 patients (95% CI, 47%-88%) had a low maximum concentration of ethambutol (<4 microg/mL), and 5 (28%; 95% CI, 12%-54%]) had a very low maximum concentration (<2 microg/mL).

CONCLUSIONS:

In HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving rifampin and ethambutol, low maximum concentrations of rifampin and ethambutol were common. For patients with HIV-related TB, therapeutic monitoring of rifampin and ethambutol levels may help clinicians achieve target serum concentrations.

PMID:
16267738
DOI:
10.1086/498024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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