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Cancer Res. 2005 Nov 1;65(21):9834-42.

DNA damage disrupts the p14ARF-B23(nucleophosmin) interaction and triggers a transient subnuclear redistribution of p14ARF.

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1
Department of Cancer Cell Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

Abstract

The p14 alternate reading frame (ARF) tumor suppressor plays a central role in cancer by binding to mdm2 (Hdm2 in humans) and enhancing p53-mediated apoptosis following DNA damage and oncogene activation. It is unclear, however, how ARF initiates its involvement in the p53/mdm2 pathway, as p53 and mdm2 are located in the nucleoplasm, whereas ARF is largely nucleolar in tumor cells. We have used immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation to examine how the subnuclear distribution and protein-protein interactions of ARF change immediately after DNA damage and over the time course of the DNA damage response in human tumor cells. We find that DNA damage disrupts the interaction of ARF with the nucleolar protein B23(nucleophosmin) and promotes a transient p53-independent translocation of ARF to the nucleoplasm, resulting in a masking of the ARF NH2 terminus that correlates with the appearance of ARF-Hdm2 complexes. The translocation also results in an unmasking of the ARF COOH terminus, suggesting that redistribution disrupts a nucleolar interaction of ARF involving this region. By 24 hours after irradiation, DNA repair has ceased and the pretreatment immunofluorescence patterns and complexes of ARF have been restored. Although the redistribution of ARF is independent of p53 and likely to be regulated by interactions other than Hdm2, ARF does not promote UV sensitization unless p53 is expressed. The results implicate the nucleolus and nucleolar interactions of the ARF, including potentially novel interactions involving its COOH terminus as sites for early DNA damage and stress-mediated cellular events.

PMID:
16267006
DOI:
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1759
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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