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Cleve Clin J Med. 2005 Oct;72 Suppl 3:S38-51.

Movement disorders in the older patient: differential diagnosis and general management.

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Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA.


Movement disorders are especially prevalent in the elderly, and some are highly treatable. Because reduced agility and slowing of gait are associated with numerous movement disorders as well as with the normal aging process, the differential diagnosis of movement disorders in the elderly can be challenging. Many of these disorders share features of parkinsonism-hypokinesia, tremor, and muscular rigidity. This article reviews common and less common movement disorders in the elderly from a primary care perspective, with an emphasis on the presenting features and the differential diagnosis. It also provides general management recommendations with advice for tailoring treatment to elderly patients.

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