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Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Mar 15;14(6):1715-28. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

Theoretical study of structure, pKa, lipophilicity, solubility, absorption, and polar surface area of some centrally acting antihypertensives.

Author information

1
Comenius University, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Odbojarov 10, SK-832 32 Bratislava, Slovakia. remko@fpharm.uniba.sk

Abstract

The methods of theoretical chemistry have been used to elucidate the molecular properties of the substituted imidazoline and oxazoline structures, a class of potent agonists and antagonists of imidazoline receptors. The geometries of various tautomers and isomers of 2-[2,6-dichlorophenylimino]imidazolidine (clonidine), 1-(N-dicyclopropylmethyl)amino-2-oxazoline (rilmenidine), 4-chloro-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2yl)-6-methoxy-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinamine (moxonidine), N-(dicyclopropylmethyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-amine (aminopyrroline), N-dicyclopropylmethyl-4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-amine (aminothiazoline), 4,5-dihydro-2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazole (compound_6), 4,5-dihydro-2-(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)-1H-imidazole (compound_7), N-(2-chloro-4-iodophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-3H-pyrrol-2-amine (LNP_911), N-amidino-3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-carboxamide (amiloride), 2-(1,4-benzodioxan-2-yl)-2-imidazoline (idazoxan), (+/-)-2-(2-ethyl-2,3-dihydro-2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline (efaroxan), (4-aminobutyl)guaninine (agmatine), and 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harmane) have been studied using Becke3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and BP86/TZ2P DFT methods. The optimized geometries indicate that these molecules show a distinctly nonplanar configuration of the imidazoline and oxazoline moieties. In the gas-phase, rilmenidine and aminothiazoline exist in two forms (amino and imino), the amino tautomers being more stable by about 6 kJ/mol. The calculations showed, in agreement with experiments, that clonidine, moxonidine, and LNP_911 exist in a more stable imino tautomer. The tautomer containing the amino group is by about 30 kJ/mol less stable. Computations that include the effect of solvation indicated that also in water the relative stability order of individual tautomers (amino and imino forms) is preserved. The computed pKa values varied between 6.7 and 9.0, and correlate well with the available experimental pKa's found in the literature. Among the clinically useful antihypertensives moxonidine exhibits the lowest basicity in water. At pH = 7.4 only about 50% of this drug exists in ionized form. The available experimental partition coefficients of compounds investigated are best reproduced by the CLOGP method. The computed partition coefficients varied between -1.80 (agmatine) and 5.35 (LNP_911) (CLOGP). Clonidine, moxonidine, and rilmenidine are moderately lipophilic compounds with lipophilicities between these two extreme values. The computed solubilities (about 0.1-4 g/L) show that the imidazoline and oxazoline derivatives studied have very low water solubility. The analysis of molecular descriptors defined by Lipinski has shown that most of the compounds studied obey 'rule of five'. Amiloride and agmatine 'outlets' exhibit also the lowest absorption. Therefore, in the early stages of the design of ligands acting on imidazoline binding sites, it is becoming more important to determine the pKa, lipophilicity, water solubility, polar surface area, absorption, and other physicochemical properties associated with a drug, before synthetic work is undertaken, with the aim of avoiding the synthesis of compounds that are predicted to have poor biopharmaceutical characteristics.

PMID:
16263295
DOI:
10.1016/j.bmc.2005.10.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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