Send to

Choose Destination
Virology. 2006 Feb 5;345(1):88-95. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

High throughput sequence analysis reveals hitherto unreported recombination in the genus Norovirus.

Author information

Department of Food Safety Science, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK.


Viruses of the Norovirus genus (Caliciviridae family) are a major cause of human gastroenteritis. In some viruses, recombination is an important evolutionary process and therefore we should try to discover the quantity and characteristics of such events in Noroviruses. In order to identify recombination events, multiple sequence alignments were assembled from publicly available strains, and were tested using RAT, a recently developed software tool. Strains identified by RAT as putative recombinants were tested further, using a phylogenetic approach, the LARD software, and a Monte Carlo method, to gain additional support for their status. The identification of two previously described recombinants, WUG1 and Snow Mountain, was made. Furthermore, three instances of hitherto unreported recombination implicating Norovirus strains MD 145-12, Gifu'96 and Saitama U4 were found, with good statistical support for the latter two of these cases. Lordsdale-like viruses were highlighted as major contributors to recombination events during Norovirus evolution. Finally, the relevance of recombinants to the worldwide transmission of Norovirus is discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center