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J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Mar 18;40(5):1187-97. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Experimental design for in vitro skin penetration study of liposomal superoxide dismutase.

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Institute of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna, Austria.


A computer-based technique using a 2((5-2)) fractional factorial design was applied for screening the factors affecting the penetration effectiveness of liposomal recombinant human-Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase. Unilamellar liposomes, containing recombinant rh-Cu/Zn-SOD in the aqueous core, are aimed at enhancing the penetration of the drug applied topically. Factors that mainly influence the chemical and physical characteristics of liposomes such as charge, molar content of cholesterol, size, surfactant and lipid were evaluated at two levels. In vitro skin penetration studies with pigskin were carried out in Franz-type diffusion cells over a period of 4 and 8h. The response variables, namely the amounts of rh-Cu/Zn-SOD penetrated into the different skin layers, were analyzed by ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). Analysis of variance showed that the size and the cholesterol content of liposomes as well as the duration of the penetration studies have a statistically significant influence on the amount of protein found in deeper skin layers.

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