Send to

Choose Destination
Ergonomics. 2005 Jul 15;48(9):1129-50.

Multimodal feedback for the acquisition of small targets.

Author information

Human-Computer Interaction Lab, Department of Computer Science, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.


This paper examines how multimodal feedback assists small-target acquisition in graphical user interfaces. All combinations of three feedback modes are analysed: non-speech audio; tactile; and pseudo-haptic "sticky" feedback. The tactile conditions used stimulation through vibration (rather than force-feedback), and the sticky conditions were implemented by dynamically reconfiguring mouse control-display gain as the cursor entered the target. Results show that for small, discretely located targets all feedback modes reduce targeting times, with stickiness providing substantial improvements. Furthermore, stickiness and tactile appear to combine well. However, the results of a more ecologically oriented menu-selection task show the need for caution, revealing that excessive feedback can damage interaction though "noise" that interferes with the acquisition of neighbouring targets.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center