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Bioinformatics. 2006 Jan 1;22(1):3-6. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

PilZ domain is part of the bacterial c-di-GMP binding protein.

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  • 1Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Tel-Hai Academic College Tel-Hai, Israel.


Recent studies identified c-di-GMP as a universal bacterial secondary messenger regulating biofilm formation, motility, production of extracellular polysaccharide and multicellular behavior in diverse bacteria. However, except for cellulose synthase, no protein has been shown to bind c-di-GMP and the targets for c-di-GMP action remain unknown. Here we report identification of the PilZ ("pills") domain (Pfam domain PF07238) in the sequences of bacterial cellulose synthases, alginate biosynthesis protein Alg44, proteins of enterobacterial YcgR and firmicute YpfA families, and other proteins encoded in bacterial genomes and present evidence indicating that this domain is (part of) the long-sought c-di-GMP-binding protein. Association of the PilZ domain with a variety of other domains, including likely components of bacterial multidrug secretion system, could provide clues to multiple functions of the c-di-GMP in bacterial pathogenesis and cell development.

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