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J Neurochem. 2005 Nov;95(3):821-33. Epub 2005 Aug 31.

The galanin-R2 agonist AR-M1896 reduces glutamate toxicity in primary neural hippocampal cells.

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Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.


Galanin is a neuropeptide involved in a variety of biological functions, including having a strong anticonvulsant activity. To assess a possible role of galanin in modulation of glutamatergic synapses and excitotoxicity, we studied effects of a galanin receptor 2(3) agonist (AR-M1896) on several molecular events induced by glutamate administration in primary neural hippocampal cells. Exposure of cells, after 5 days in vitro, to glutamate 0.5 mM for 10 min caused morphological alterations, including disaggregation of beta-tubulin and MAP-2 cytoskeletal protein assembly, loss of neurites and cell shrinkage. When present in culture medium together with glutamate, 1 and 10 nM of AR-M1896 reduced these alterations. Moreover, AR-M1896 counteracted glutamate-induced c-fos mRNA and c-Fos protein up-regulation after 30-150 min, and 24 h, respectively. Massive nuclear alterations (Hoechst 33258 staining), observed 24 h after glutamate exposure, were also antagonized by AR-M1896 (0.1-100 nM) in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate that galanin, probably mainly through its type 2 receptor, interferes with events associated with glutamate toxicity.

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