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J Neurochem. 2005 Nov;95(3):641-50.

Noradrenaline overflow in mouse dentate gyrus following locus coeruleus and natural stimulation: real-time monitoring by in vivo voltammetry.

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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Universtiy of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.


The pattern of catecholaminergic innervation of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, particularly the relatively dense and selective noradrenergic input, creates favourable conditions for real-time monitoring of noradrenaline (NA) release following stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC) by in vivo voltammetry. Two electrochemically active species with different temporal characteristics were registered in the DG following electrical stimulation of the LC. Several approaches, including testing of anatomical and pharmacological specificity, coating of microelectrodes with Nafion and use of fast cyclic voltammetry, were used to verify the characteristics of electrochemical responses. The first sharp peak that appeared immediately during stimulation was definitely associated with NA overflow. The second late peak was possibly attributable to ascorbic acid. We examined the characteristics of alpha-2 adrenoceptor regulation of NA release in the DG, and showed for the first time that noradrenergic terminals resemble dopaminergic terminals in their mechanisms of increasing the refilling rate of the readily releasable pool following stimulation repeated at short intervals. Amperometric registration of NA in the DG was complicated by interference with electrical activity of hippocampus. This interference could be used, after appropriate filtration, for simultaneous recording from the same microelectrode of NA release and electrical activity of the hippocampus.

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