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J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Nov 2;127(43):15218-27.

Dependence of field switched ordered arrays of dinuclear mixed-valence complexes on the distance between the redox centers and the size of the counterions.

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Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA.


trans-[(H(2)NCH(2)CH(2)C triple bond N)(dppe)(2)Ru(C triple bond C)(6)Ru(dppe)(2)(N triple bond CCH(2)CH(2)NH(2))][PF(6)](2), 2[PF(6)](2), a derivative of trans-[Cl(dppe)(2)Ru(C triple bond C)(6)Ru(dppe)(2)Cl] functionalized for binding to a silicon substrate, has been prepared and characterized spectroscopically, electrochemically, and with a solid state, single-crystal structure determination. Covalent binding via reaction of one amine group to a boron-doped, smooth Si-Cl substrate is verified by XPS measurements and surface electrochemistry. Vertical orientation is demonstrated by film thickness measurements. Synthesis of the 2[PF(6)](3) mixed-valence complex on the surface is established by electrochemical techniques. Measurement of the ac capacitance of the film at 1 MHz as a function of voltage across the film with a pulse-counter pulse technique demonstrates controlled electric field generation of the two stable mixed-valence forms differing in the spatial location of one electron, that is, switching. As compared to [trans-Ru(dppm)(2)(C triple bond CFc)(NCCH(2)CH(2)NH(2))][PF(6)][Cl], 1[PF(6)][Cl], the magnitude of the capacitance signal per complex observed on switching is shown to increase with increasing distance between the metal centers. Additional experiments on 1[X][Cl] show that the potential for switching 1[X][Cl] increases in the order [X](-) = [SO(3)CF(3)](-) < [PF(6)](-) < [Cl](-). A simple electrostatic model suggests that the smaller is the counterion, the greater is the perturbation of the metal sites and the larger is the barrier for switching.


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