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J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2006 Feb;192(2):159-73. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Electric interactions through chirping behavior in the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

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School of Engineering and Science, International University Bremen, P.O. Box 750 561, 28725 Bremen, Germany.


The weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus produces wave-like electric organ discharges distinguished by a high degree of regularity. Transient amplitude and frequency modulations ("chirps") can be evoked in males by stimulation with the electric field of a conspecific. During these interactions, the males examined in this study produced six types of chirps, including two novel ones. Stimulation of a test fish with a conspecific at various distances showed that two electrically interacting fish must be within 10 cm of each other to evoke chirping behavior in the neighboring fish. The chirp rate of all but one chirp type elicited by the neighboring fish was found to be negatively correlated with the absolute value of the frequency difference between the two interacting fish, but independent of the sign of this difference. Correlation analysis of the instantaneous rates of chirp occurrence revealed two modes of interactions characterized by reciprocal stimulation and reciprocal inhibition. Further analysis of the temporal relationship between the chirps generated by the two fish during electric interactions showed that the chirps generated by one individual follow the chirps of the other with a short latency of approximately 500-1,000 ms. We hypothesize that this "echo response" serves a communicatory function.

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