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J Hum Genet. 2006;51(1):38-46. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

PAX9 and TGFB3 are linked to susceptibility to nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in the Japanese: population-based and family-based candidate gene analyses.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan.


The prevalence of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate only (CPO) are believed to be higher in the Japanese than in Americans, Europeans or Africans. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a Japanese population, relationships between CL/P or CPO and seven candidate genes (TGFB3, DLX3, PAX9, CLPTM1, TBX10, PVRL1, TBX22) that showed positive associations in other populations and are expressed in the oral/lip region in developing mice. We first searched for mutations in these genes among 112 CL/P and 16 CPO patients, and found a heterozygous missense mutation (640A > G, S214G) in exon 3 of PAX9 in two sibs with CL/P and their phenotypically normal mother from a Japanese family. A population-based case-control analysis and a family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and two-SNP haplotypes of the genes, between the 112 CL/P cases with their parents and 192 controls indicated a significant association at one SNP site, IVS1 + 5321, in TGFB3 with a P-value of 0.0016. Population-based haplotyping revealed that the association was most significant for haplotype "A/A" consisting of IVS1 + 5321 and IVS1 - 1572; TDT also gave a P-value of 0.0252 in this haplotype.

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