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J Dent Res. 2005 Nov;84(11):1016-20.

Apigenin and tt-farnesol with fluoride effects on S. mutans biofilms and dental caries.

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  • 1Center for Oral Biology and Eastman Dept. of Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, 625 Elmwood Avenue, Box 683, Rochester, NY 14620, USA.


Apigenin (Api) and tt-farnesol (Far) are two naturally occurring agents that affect the development of cariogenic biofilms. Fluoride (F) interferes physicochemically with caries development and also exhibits antibacterial activity. We examined whether the association of Api and Far enhance the anti-caries properties of F by acting cooperatively on the expression of virulence of Streptococcus mutans. The biological effects of each of the agents were greatly enhanced when used in combination with F. In general, biofilms treated with Api and/or Far in combination with F displayed less biomass and fewer insoluble glucans and iodophilic polysaccharides than did those treated with the test agents alone (P < 0.05). The combination of the test agents with F was highly effective in preventing caries development in rats, especially Api+Far+F, and results were comparable with those observed with chlorhexidine + F (positive control). Results from these studies showed that apigenin and tt-farnesol may enhance the cariostatic effectiveness of fluoride.

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