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Neuroimage. 2006 Apr 1;30(2):544-53. Epub 2005 Oct 24.

Neuronal chronometry of target detection: fusion of hemodynamic and event-related potential data.

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Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford, CT 06106, USA.


Event-related potential (ERP) studies of the brain's response to infrequent, target (oddball) stimuli elicit a sequence of physiological events, the most prominent and well studied being a complex, the P300 (or P3) peaking approximately 300 ms post-stimulus for simple stimuli and slightly later for more complex stimuli. Localization of the neural generators of the human oddball response remains challenging due to the lack of a single imaging technique with good spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we use independent component analyses to fuse ERP and fMRI modalities in order to examine the dynamics of the auditory oddball response with high spatiotemporal resolution across the entire brain. Initial activations in auditory and motor planning regions are followed by auditory association cortex and motor execution regions. The P3 response is associated with brainstem, temporal lobe, and medial frontal activity and finally a late temporal lobe "evaluative" response. We show that fusing imaging modalities with different advantages can provide new information about the brain.

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