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Clin Nephrol. 2005 Oct;64(4):264-70.

Random urine calcium/osmolality in the assessment of calciuria in children with decreased muscle mass.

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Section of Nephrology, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.



Random urine Ca/creatinine (UCa/Cr) is used to estimate 24-hour Ca excretion. However, due to decreased urine creatinine excretion in children with decreased muscle mass (DMM), UCa/Cr overestimates their Ca excretion.


To evaluate whether in children with DMM random urine Ca/osmolality (UCa/Osm) can accurately predict hypercalciuria (24-hour urine Ca > 4.0 mg/kg) and at which "cutoff" value.


19 children with DMM and 29 with normal muscle mass (NMM), ages 6 - 17 years, were studied. DMM was diagnosed based on clinical findings and decreased serum creatinine, and confirmed by low urine creatinine excretion. Over 24 hours, subjects collected each void separately. After each sample was analyzed, samples of each participant were combined to form a 24-hour specimen from which an aliquot (AL) was obtained; 24-hour urine Ca was first correlated with the corresponding AL Ca/Cr and Ca/Osm. As an internal control, a similar assessment ofproteinuria was conducted. In the next step, AL data were compared with individual urine samples to identify the time of day when a random sample best correlates with AL.


The correlation coefficient between 24-hour Ca and AL Ca/Cr in all children was 0.61, in NMM 0.96, and in DMM 0.69 (in all p < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between 24-hour urine Ca and AL Ca/Osm in all children was 0.90, in NMM 0.90, and in DMM 0.91 (in all p < 0.001). In children with DMM, the correlation coefficient of 24-hour protein with AL protein/Cr was 0.75, and with protein/Osm 0.98 (both p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed UCa/Cr as a better predictor of 24-hour Ca > 4.0 mg/kg in NMM, whereas UCa/Osm was a better predictor of hypercalciuria in DMM patients. In NMM, UCa/Cr ratio > 0.20 had sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 96% in detecting 24-hour Ca > 4.0 mg/kg, whereas in those with DMM UCa/Osm (x 10) ratio of > 0.25 had sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 93% in detecting hypercalciuria. It was further found that random urine specimens collected between 9:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. best represented 24-hour urine data.


In children with DMM, UCa/Osm can successfully replace UCa/Cr as a screening tool for hypercalciuria.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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