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J Mol Model. 2006 Feb;12(3):281-9. Epub 2005 Oct 21.

AMBER force-field parameters for phosphorylated amino acids in different protonation states: phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, phosphotyrosine, and phosphohistidine.

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Abteilung für Bioinformatik, Institut für Biochemie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Fahrstrasse 17, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.


We report a consistent set of AMBER force-field parameters for the most common phosphorylated amino acids, phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, phosphotyrosine, and phosphohistidine in different protonation states. The calculation of atomic charges followed the original restrained electrostatic potential fitting procedure used to determine the charges for the parm94/99 parameter set, taking alpha-helical and beta-strand conformations of the corresponding ACE-/NME-capped model peptide backbone into account. Missing force-field parameters were taken directly from the general AMBER force field (gaff) and the parm99 data set with minor modifications, or were newly generated based on ab initio calculations for model systems. Final parameters were validated by geometry optimizations and molecular-dynamics simulations. Template libraries for the phosphorylated amino acids in Leap format and corresponding frcmod parameter files are made available. [Figure: see text].

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