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Nat Rev Immunol. 2005 Dec;5(12):905-16. doi: 10.1038/nri1728.

Immunization without needles.

Author information

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA. samir@engineering.ucsb.edu

Abstract

Most current immunization procedures make use of needles and syringes for vaccine administration. With the increase in the number of immunizations that children around the world routinely receive, health organizations are beginning to look for safer alternatives that reduce the risk of cross-contamination that arises from needle reuse. This article focuses on contemporary developments in needle-free methods of immunization, such as liquid-jet injectors, topical application to the skin, oral pills and nasal sprays.

PMID:
16239901
DOI:
10.1038/nri1728
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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