Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Exp Allergy. 2005 Oct;35(10):1272-8.

Bacterial and fungal agents in house dust and wheeze in children: the PARSIFAL study.

Author information

  • 1Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, and Children's Hospital, Salzburg, Austria.



Growing up on a farm and an anthroposophic lifestyle are associated with a lower prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood. This might be related to increased inhalatory exposure to microbial agents.


To assess the association between microbial agents in house dust and atopic wheeze in farm children, Steiner school children and reference children.


Levels of bacterial endotoxin, fungal beta(1,3)-glucans and fungal extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in mattress and living room floor dust were measured in a population of 270 atopic (=Phadiatop-positive) children with self-reported wheezing, including 168 current atopic wheezers, and 441 non-atopic, non-symptomatic controls. These children were selected from a cross-sectional study in five European countries.


In the study population as a whole, average levels of mattress dust endotoxin, EPS and glucans were slightly (1.1-1.2-fold; P<0.10) higher in control children than in atopic wheezers. Atopic wheeze was related to mattress levels of endotoxin, EPS and glucans in farm and farm-reference children. However, when adjusting for group (farm vs. farm-reference children), the associations became non-significant whereas the group effect remained. No associations between atopic wheeze and microbial agents were observed in Steiner and Steiner-reference children. For current atopic wheeze, the farm effect became non-significant after adjustment for microbial agent levels.


Not only bacterial endotoxin but also mould components might offer some protection against atopic wheeze in children. However, the protective effect of being raised on a farm was largely unexplained by the mattress microbial agent levels measured in this study.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk