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J Biosci Bioeng. 2003;96(6):547-58.

Effect of dilution rate on structure of a mesophilic acetate-degrading methanogenic community during continuous cultivation.

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1
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan. shige@kumamoto-u.ac.jp

Abstract

The community structures of two mesophilic acetate-degrading methanogenic consortia enriched at dilution rates of 0.025 and 0.6 d(-1) were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA clonal sequences and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). FISH experiments with archaeal and bacterial domain-specific probes showed that archaeal cells were predominant and only a small number of bacterial cells were detected at both dilution rates. In the domain Archaea, the number of cells closely related to Methanosarcina barkeri was shown to be greater at the high dilution rate using FISH with species-specific probes. Taxonomic analyses based on rDNA clonal sequences obtained at the low and high dilution rates showed that 43% of 100 clones and 72% of 92 clones, respectively, were affiliated with the domain Archaea and the remainders at each dilution rate were affiliated with the domain Bacteria. Within the domain Archaea, all rDNA clones at both dilution rates were affiliated with the genera Methanosaeta or Methanosarcina of the aceticlastic methanogens. Within the domain Bacteria, the rDNA clones obtained at the low dilution rate were affiliated with four phyla, Firmicutes (36%), Bacteroidetes (9%), Chloroflexi (6%) and candidate division OP12 (5%). The rDNA clones obtained at the high dilution rate were affiliated with four phyla, Firmicutes (16%), Bacteroidetes (8%), Proteobacteria (1%) and candidate division OP12 (3%). Real-time quantitative PCR experiments showed that the number of rDNA sequences affiliated with the genus Methanosarcina was greater at the high dilution rate. In addition, a significant number of rDNA sequences affiliated with the genus Methanoculleus were detected only at the low dilution rate. Detection of a hydrogenotrophic methanogen at the low dilution rate suggests that the syntrophic acetate oxidation by hydrogenotrophic methanogens and acetate-oxidizing bacteria could occur at the low dilution rate.

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