Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biosci Bioeng. 2003;96(2):103-9.

Amino acid racemases: functions and mechanisms.

Author information

  • 1Laboratory of Microbial Biochemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan.

Abstract

L-Amino acids are predominant in living organisms, but D-amino acids such as D-alanine and D-glutamate also occur in all eubacterial cell walls. Moreover, even mammals contain endogenous D-amino acids: D-serine functions as a signaling molecule in mammalian brains, and D-aspartate acts as a mediator in endocrine systems. Various other D-amino acids have been demonstrated in archaea, yeasts, fungi, plants, insects, mollusks and other eucaryotic organisms. These D-amino acids are mostly endogenous and produced in most cases by racemization from their corresponding antipodes by the action of racemases. Therefore, amino acid racemases play a central role in D-amino acid metabolism. Most amino acid racemases require pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a coenzyme, but several others require no coenzymes. Recently, the structures and functions of these two classes of amino acid racemases were clarified on a molecular basis. We here describe recent advances in studies of the functions and mechanisms of PLP-dependent and -independent amino acid racemases.

PMID:
16233494
[PubMed]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center