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Przegl Lek. 2005;62(4):230-3.

[Preproghrelin gene, ghrelin receptor and metabolic syndrome].

[Article in Polish]

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Klinika Endokrynologii, Nadciśnienia, Tetniczego i Chorób Przemiany Materii, Pomorska Akademia Medyczna, Szczecin.


Obesity is a multi-gene syndrome, expression of which is modulated not only by environmental factors but above all by a number of modified genes interacting with each other. Among candidate genes related to obesity phenotype is ghrelin gene. Ghrelin plays a significant role in feeding regulation and is the strongest stimulator of growth hormone secretion. Ghrelin acts by GHS1a receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor). Mutations in preproghrelin and ghrelin gene or ghrelin receptor gene could be responsible for low ghrelin levels observed in obese individuals. Among identificated mutations, two Arg51 Gln and Leu72Met are most often described and change amino-acid sequence of ghrelin (Arg51Gln) and preproghrelin (Leu72Met). Although no direct relationship between Arg51Gln mutation and obesity phenotype was found, it had been shown that carriers of Arg51Gln mutation had significantly decreased plasma ghrelin levels. Furthermore 51Gln allele carriers had higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension than non-carriers. Met 72 carrier status is associated with higher serum IGF-1 levels and seems to be a protective factor against fat accumulation and cardiovascular complications of obesity. No evidence of relationship between ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms and body mass regulation was found, however, until now there is no study on relationships between these polymorphisms and metabolic complications of obesity. The presence of genetic variants in ghrelin or GHS receptor gene could be responsible for impaired GH secretion in visceral type obesity and development of metabolic syndrome in some of obese subjects. On the other hand, some mutations in preproghrelin gene could be protective against metabolic syndrome.

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