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J Virol. 2005 Nov;79(21):13800-5.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus fails to activate cytokine-mediated innate immune responses in cultured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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  • 1Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.


Activation of host innate immune responses was studied in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SCV)-infected human A549 lung epithelial cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). In all cell types, SCV-specific subgenomic mRNAs were seen, whereas no expression of SCV proteins was found. No induction of cytokine genes (alpha interferon [IFN-alpha], IFN-beta, interleukin-28A/B [IL-28A/B], IL-29, tumor necrosis factor alpha, CCL5, or CXCL10) or IFN-alpha/beta-induced MxA gene was seen in SCV-infected A549 cells, macrophages, or DCs. SCV also failed to induce DC maturation (CD86 expression) or enhance major histocompatibility complex class II expression. Our data strongly suggest that SCV fails to activate host cell cytokine gene expression in human macrophages and DCs.

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