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Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2005 Oct;15(7):237-43.

The RAGE axis and endothelial dysfunction: maladaptive roles in the diabetic vasculature and beyond.

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Division of Surgical Science, Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.


Receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules. The ligand-RAGE axis is emerging as a central mechanism linked to vascular injury and atherosclerosis in diabetes and in euglycemia. The repertoire of RAGE ligands, including advanced glycation end products, S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, amyloid-beta peptide, and Mac-1, transcends RAGE biology from specifically the science of diabetic complications to central aspects of the inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Experiments in cell culture and in vivo support the notion that interaction of RAGE ligands with RAGE activates key signal transduction pathways that modulate fundamental cellular properties, thereby leading to vascular and inflammatory cell perturbation. These considerations support the premise that the ligand-RAGE axis may be an important target for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular disease and, fundamentally, in initiation and amplification of inflammatory responses.

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