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Phytochemistry. 2005 Nov;66(21):2557-70. Epub 2005 Oct 13.

Cryptophyceae and rhodophyceae; chemotaxonomy, phylogeny, and application.

Author information

1
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. graeme.dunstan@csiro.au

Abstract

The biochemical compositions of seven strains of marine cryptomonad and a rhodophyte were determined in logarithmic phase batch (1.4 L flask) and semi-continuous (10 L carboy) culture. Lipid ranged from 13% to 28%, protein ranged from 53% to 68%, and carbohydrate ranged from 9% to 24% of the organic weight. The major lipid classes in the species examined were polar lipids (78-88% of total lipid). The major sterol in the Cryptophyceae and the Rhodophyceae was 24-methylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3beta-ol (62-99% of total sterols); which is also the major sterol in some diatoms and haptophytes. Smaller proportions of cholest-5-en-3beta-ol (1-17.7%) were also found in the Cryptophyceae. Most cryptomonads contained high proportions of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 18:3n-3 (20.7-29.9% of the total fatty acids), 18:4n-3 (12.5-30.2%), 20:5n-3 (7.6-13.2%) and 22:6n-3 (6.4-10.8%). However, the blue-green cryptomonad Chroomonas placoidea was characterized by a low proportion of 22:6n-3 (0.2% of total fatty acids), and a significant proportion of 22:5n-6 (4.5%), and the presence of 24-ethylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3beta-ol (35.5% of total sterols). The fatty acid composition of the rhodophyte Rhodosorus sp. was similar to those of the Cryptophyceae except for lower proportions of 18:4n-3 and lack of C21 and C22 PUFA. It is postulated that the primary endosymbiosis of a photosynthetic n-3 C18 PUFA-producing prokaryote and a eukaryotic host capable of chain elongation and desaturation of exogenous PUFA, resulted in the Rhodophyceae capable of producing n-3 C20 PUFA. The secondary endosymbiosis of a photosynthetic n-3 C20 PUFA-producing eukaryote (such as a Rhodosorus sp. like-rhodophyte) and a eukaryotic host capable of further chain elongation and desaturation, resulted in the Cryptophyceae being capable of producing n-3 C20 and C22 PUFA de novo. Selected isolates were examined further in feeding trials with juvenile Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Rhodomonas salina CS-24(containing elevated 22:6n-3) produced high growth rates in oysters; equivalent to the microalga commonly used in aquaculture, Isochrysis sp. (T.ISO).

PMID:
16226285
DOI:
10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.08.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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