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Brain Res. 2005 Oct 26;1060(1-2):188-92. Epub 2005 Oct 13.

Anti-inflammatory mechanism is involved in ethyl pyruvate-mediated efficacious neuroprotection in the postischemic brain.

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Department of Anatomy, Inha University School of Medicine, 7-241 Shinheung-dong, Jung-Gu, Inchon 400-712, Republic of Korea.


Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a pyruvate derivative, and has recently been reported to prevent lethality in mice with established lethal sepsis and systemic inflammation. In a previous study, we reported that EP has a neuroprotective effect in a rat cerebral ischemia model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), in which it was found to be effective when injected as late as 12 h after MCAO/reperfusion. In the present study, we show that therapeutic window of pyruvate in this MCAO animal model is limited to 1 h (30 min before and 30 min after MCAO). Moreover, both pyruvate and EP have a neuroprotective effect during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or H2O2 challenge in primary cortical culture. In contrast, EP suppressed the LPS-induced activation of primary microglia in culture, but pyruvate did not. The suppression of microglia activation was evidenced by a reduction in nitric oxide release and by a proinflammatory factor induction in primary microglia culture, which were accompanied by the repression of nuclear factor-kappaB activation. These results suggest that EP has a strong protective effect and a wide therapeutic window, and that this protective effect of EP is related to its anti-inflammatory action.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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